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Cardiovascular Disease is Killing Us!
By all indications, we are facing a global pandemic. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes more than 50% of deaths, not only in developed countries but the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that low and middle-income countries are disproportionately affected. : 82% of CVD deaths occur. in low and middle countries and almost equally for men and women. WHO estimates that by 2030 nearly 23.6 million people will die from CVD. These are predicted to remain among the leading causes of death. The largest percentage increase will occur in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The largest increase in the number of deaths will occur in the Southeast Asian Region.
CVD costs include: Direct costs that include hospital care costs, prescription drugs, physician care, care in other institutions, and additional health care costs such as for other professionals, revenue, public health, health research, etc.; plus indirect value – includes the value of economic output lost as a result of disability, whether short-term or long-term, or as a result of premature death; Other expenses may include the cost of time lost from work and/or recreation by family members or friends who are caring for patients.
CVD is a group of cardiovascular disorders including:
• heart disease – disease of the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle
• cerebrovascular disease – disease of the blood vessels that supply the brain
• high blood pressure – high blood pressure
• peripheral vascular disease – disease of the blood vessels that supply the arms and legs
• rheumatic heart disease – damage to the heart muscle and valves from rheumatic fever, caused by streptococcal bacteria
• heart failure – a condition where problems with the structure or function of the heart impair its ability to supply enough blood to meet the body’s needs.
• congenital heart disease – an abnormality in the structure of the heart present at birth
• Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism – blood clots in the veins of the legs, which can break out and travel to the heart and lungs.
Heart attacks and strokes are often serious events and are mainly due to blockages that prevent blood from flowing to the heart or brain. The most common cause of this is a build-up of fat in the walls of blood vessels that supply the heart or brain. The injury can also be caused by bleeding in the brain or from a blood clot.
The burden of CVD should not only measure mortality. CVD leads to excessive economic costs as well as human burden. CVD has cost the EU healthcare system under $260 billion, representing a capital cost of more than $500 per year, which accounts for 10% of healthcare spending across the EU. Looking at these direct costs underestimated the true cost of CVD. Losses from death and disease totaled $55 billion. The cost of untimely care for CVD patients is another major non-health cost estimated at less than $60 billion. Just the economic cost… the real cost in human suffering and loss of life is incalculable.
The burden of CVD in the United States, including health care costs and lost productivity resulting from death and disability, was estimated to exceed $475 billion in 2009, according to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. In comparison, in 2008, the cost of all cancers and benign tumors was 228 billion dollars.
The burden of CVD affects only the affluent and industrialized world. Outside of sub-Saharan Africa, CVD is the leading cause of death in the developing world. The economic impact is felt both as a cost to the health system as well as the loss of income and productivity of those affected by the disease or directly and caregivers of those affected by CVD, who are out of work. no more.
This is exacerbated in the developing world where CVD affects a large proportion of working age adults. In China, direct spending is estimated at more than $40 billion, or 4% of the country’s gross domestic product. In South Africa, 25% of the country’s health expenditure is allocated to CVD. Researchers have estimated that between the developing economies of Brazil, India, China, South Africa and Mexico, 21 million years of future productive life are lost each year to CVD. A new study suggests that obesity has recently overtaken smoking as the “biggest modifiable risk factor” that affects how long and how we live. Smoking has long been known to be the leading cause of heart disease, lung cancer, emphysema and other health problems. It is estimated that two-thirds of Americans are obese, and 50 percent of them are severely obese. Obesity is defined by the Mayo Clinic as having “excess body fat that is more than cosmetic.”
According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), obesity increases the risk of heart disease, diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, stroke, sleep apnea and osteoarthritis. The most surprising thing is that obesity is gradually increasing due to smoking. For years now we have heard that smoking is the number one cause of many diseases and life-threatening conditions such as lung cancer, emphysema and heart disease; However, recent studies have suggested that obesity is beginning to overshadow the dangers of smoking and drinking – and at an alarming rate. In 2008, obesity was estimated to cost the U.S. $147 billion and there should be little condemnation by 2010. In fact, Thomson Reuters estimates that obese people will spend about 40 percent of health care costs – or $1,429 more per year than people of “normal weight” next year. The highest cost of CVD is related to the incidence of heart failure that increases with age. In 2000, about 12.7 percent of the US population was 65 years of age or older. It is estimated that in 2020, 16.5 percent will be in this age group.
According to the CDC, among the population of the United States who have heart disease, 70 percent are 60 years or older, which means that the prevalence of heart failure will increase significantly in the coming years. Ironically, another reason for the increase in the number of people suffering from heart disease is the success of heart disease treatment. More effective treatment has resulted in higher survival rates after heart attacks. According to the CDC, more than 20 percent of men will have a heart attack within six years of having a heart attack. A higher percentage (more than 40 percent) of women will suffer from heart failure in this period after a heart attack. At the same time, the aging of the population and the improvement of the medical outlook for heart attack victims increase approximately three times the incidence of heart failure. the heart every year that has been seen for the past 10 years.
These factors will increase the economic impact of heart failure. This is true even though the survival of heart attack patients has improved with heart drug therapy. Human Cost Heart failure takes a toll on the patient and their family in terms of the additional difficulty the patient has in performing daily activities. This human cost was analyzed in depth in a recent study by scientists from the University of Michigan Health System and the Veterans Administration Ann Arbor Healthcare System, based on the results of a study from 10,626 heart failure patients aged 65 and over. Studies have shown that, compared to people without the disease, people with heart disease are:
• May be more disabled
• May have more difficulty with daily activities, even walking down the hall
• More likely to be in a nursing home
• More likely to have been in a nursing home in the past two years
• Easier access to care at home
• More likely to have experienced health conditions more common in older adults (such as self-harm from falls, urinary incontinence and dementia)
A major factor in determining the cost of treating heart failure is the frequency of hospital admissions. A large percentage of health care costs related to heart failure are due to the need for inpatient hospitalization. Patients with heart attacks are at risk of hospitalization. Results from the National Hospital Discharge Survey show that the number of hospitalizations for heart failure has increased dramatically, from more than 400,000 in 1979 to more than 1.1 million in 2004, that was nearly 2 percent of all hospital admissions in the United States.
According to the Centers for Disease Control, among people on Medicare, heart failure is the most common reason for hospitalization. Re-hospitalization rates are as high as 50 percent within six months of discharge. The three main reasons for hospitalization for heart disease patients are fluid overload (55 percent), angina (chest pain) or heart disease (25 percent). and irregular rhythms (15 percent). Effective treatment of fluid overload is always needed, not only to improve the prognosis of heart disease patients but also to improve their quality of life. Repeated hospital admissions have a negative impact on the patient’s prognosis and quality of life and increase the cost of treatment.
In 2009, Dr. Eldon Smith of Canada’s first Heart Strategy and Health Plan says “Heart disease (heart disease and stroke) is the #1 killer and threat to public health, costing the economy more than $22 billion annually.” That represents over $600 for every man, woman and child without even trying to estimate the years lost, lives lost and loves lost.
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