How Much Does An Average 1 Year Old Baby Weight Star Birth In Our Galaxy Came In Brilliant Bursts

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Star Birth In Our Galaxy Came In Brilliant Bursts

Ny Galaxy Milky Way misy miolakolaka dia tara-pahazavana manjavozavo rehefa hita eny amin’ny lanitra mazava sy maizina amin’ny alina. Io tarika manjelanjelatra misy hazavana manjavozavo io, manomboka amin’ny faravodilanitra ka hatrany amin’ny faravodilanitra, dia miforona avy amin’ny kintana mirehitra izay tsy hitan’ny maso tsirairay. Ny Masoandrontsika 4,56 lavitrisa taona dia iray amin’ireo kintana mamirapiratra hafa an’arivony tapitrisa izay manao ny dihy mahafinaritra sy falifaly ao anatin’ity Galaxy lehibe misy antsika ity. Any amin’ny tanàna ambanivohitr’i Milky Way no misy antsika, ao anatin’ny iray amin’ireo sandry miolikolika ao aminy. Saingy, ny tantaran’ny fahaterahan’ny kintana taloha, izay nitranga lalina tao anatin’ny fon’ny Galaxy, dia nijanona ho mistery hatry ny ela. Tamin’ny Desambra 2019, ny astronoma tao amin’ny Max Planck Institute-Gesellschaft tany Alemaina, dia namoaka ny valin-teniny izay nilaza fa nisy fipoahana mahery vaika roa nitarika ny fahaterahan’ny kintana teo afovoan’ny Voie lactée.

Ny fandinihana vaovao dia manondro fa ny fahaterahana kintana dia nitombo tao am-pon’ny Galaxy manodidina ny valo arivo tapitrisa taona lasa izay. Na izany aza, ny fandinihana dia manondro ihany koa fa nisy fihodinana faharoa ny fahaterahana kintana izay nitranga tokony ho iray arivo tapitrisa taona lasa izay. Maro ny astronoma no nilaza taloha fa teraka tsy an-kijanona ireo kintana monina ao amin’ny kapila kely afovoany misy antsika. Ity toe-javatra ity dia hanome aingam-panahy asa teorika vaovao manazava ny niandohan’ny sy ny fananan’ny endri-javatra miendrika bar ao anatin’ny kapila Galaxy.

Araka ny fandinihana vaovao, maherin’ny 90% amin’ireo kintana kapila no niforona nandritra ny fihodinana voalohany tamin’ny fahaterahan’ny kintana valo arivo tapitrisa taona lasa izay. Na izany aza, ny fihodinana faharoa amin’ny fahaterahana kintana, izay tompon’andraikitra amin’ny fiforonan’ny 5% eo ho eo amin’ny kintan’ny kapila, dia nitranga taty aoriana be – tao anatin’ny fotoana fohy monja teo amin’ny iray lavitrisa taona lasa izay. Teo anelanelan’ireo fizarana roa nahaterahan’ny kintana mahery vaika, dia nisy vanim-potoana lava nanjakan’ny fiadanana sy fahanginana selestialy, izay zara raha teraka ny kintana zaza vao teraka.

Ireo kintana voamarika amin’ity fanadihadiana ity dia mameno faritra miendrika kapila amin’ny Galaxy misy antsika, antsoina hoe ny kapila nokleary. Io kapila io dia mihodidina ny vondron-kintana anatiny indrindra ao amin’ny Milky Way sy ny lavaka mainty lehibe misy eo afovoany, antsoina hoe Sagittaire A* (tononina Sagittaire-a-kintana). Ny lavaka mainty afovoan’ny Galaxy misy antsika dia somary maivana – fara-faharatsiny, toy ny halaviran’ny loaka mainty lehibe indrindra – ary milanja an-tapitrisany heny amin’ny herin’ny masoandro, mifanohitra amin’ny an’arivony tapitrisa heny amin’ny herin’ny masoandro ataon’ny maro hafa. amin’ny karazany hafahafa.

Miaraka amin’ny fandinihany ny rOA fizaran-taona mahery amin’ny fahaterahan’ny kintana, ny astronoma dia nanolo-kevitra ny hanovana ny ampahany amin’ny tantaran’ny Galaxy mistery fahiny. Maro ny astronoma no nihevitra fa teraka tsikelikely tao anatin’ny an-tapitrisany taona lasa ireo kintana mameno ny fon’ny Voie lactée. Na izany aza, ny fikarohana vaovao dia manondro fa mety hisy fandaharam-potoana hafa. Raha izany no izy, dia mety hisy fiantraikany amin’ny trangan-javatra astronomika maromaro hafa izany.

Ny scenario vaovao dia tena mahaliana ihany koa satria manome hazavana vaovao momba ny fitomboan’ny Sagitarrius A*. Ny entona mitsingevana ao amin’ny fo mistery amin’ny Galaxy-ntsika dia miteraka kintana sy fitomboan’ny faobe mavesa-danjan’ny lavaka mainty be mponina. Ity fanavaozana vao haingana momba ny tantaran’ny fiforonan’ny kintana ao amin’ny Milky Way ity dia milaza izany Sagittaire A* azo inoana fa nahatratra ny ankamaroan’ny faobeny ankehitriny talohan’ny valo arivo tapitrisa taona lasa izay.

Tantara fohy momba ny Galaxy

Iray monja amin’ireo vahindanitra hafa an’arivony tapitrisa monina ao amin’ny Universe hita maso isika. Talohan’ny 1920, ny astronoma dia nihevitra fa tsy manam-paharoa ny Galaxy–ary io no Galaxy manontolo Universe.

Manana savaivony mahatalanjona eo amin’ny 150 000 ka hatramin’ny 200 000 ny taonan’ny hazavana ao amin’ny Voie lactée eto amintsika, ary tombanana ho fonenan’ny kintana 100-200 lavitrisa, ary koa planeta 100 lavitrisa mahery. Ny rafi-masoandrontsika dia miorina eo amin’ny radius eo amin’ny 27.000 taona hazavàna eo amin’ny foibe Galactic, eo amin’ny sisiny anatiny amin’ny Orion Arm, izay iray amin’ireo fifantohan’ny entona sy vovoka miendrika miolikolika izay mahatonga ny Milky Way ho toy ny kodiaran’ny kintana mihodinkodina goavam-be ao anatin’ny midadasika ny Spacetime. Ireo kintana mirehitra sy mamirapiratra ao anatin’ny 10.000 taona hazavana anatiny indrindra dia mibontsina ary iray na maromaro trano fisotroana izay taratra avy amin’ny mibontsina.

Kintana mamirapiratra sy rahona misy entona, hita amin’ny halavirana midadasika amin’ny fon’ny Galaxy, manodidina ny 220 kilometatra isan-tsegondra. Mifanohitra amin’ny lalàn’ny dinamika Kepleriana io hafainganam-pandehan’ny fihodinana tsy tapaka io ary manondro fa manodidina ny 90% amin’ny faoben’ny Galaxy misy antsika dia tsy hitan’ny teleskaopyntsika – ary tsy mamoaka na mandray taratra elektromagnetika. Ity fitaovana tsy hita maso sy matoatoa ity dia nantsoina hoe ny zavatra maizina, ary heverina fa voaforon’ireo singa tsy atomika avy any ivelany izy io. Ny mistery zavatra maizina mitana anjara toerana lehibe amin’ny “glue” misintona izay mampitambatra ny vahindanitra, ary ny fisiany dia manazava ny antony mahatonga ny zavatra amin’ny halavirana samihafa mihodina amin’ny hafainganam-pandeha tsy tapaka manodidina ny foibe Galactic, ka manohitra ny dinamika Kepleriana.

Ny Milky Way, amin’ny ankapobeny, dia miakatra manerana ny Spacetime amin’ny hafainganam-pandeha eo amin’ny 600 kilometatra isan-tsegondra raha oharina amin’ireo rafitra fanondro extragalactic. Ny kintana tranainy indrindra monina ao amin’ny Galaxy misy antsika dia saika mitovy taona amin’ny Universe 13,8 lavitrisa taona, ary noho izany dia azo inoana fa niforona taoriana kelin’ny cosmological. taona maizina manaraka ny Big Bang. Ny cosmological taona maizina ilazana vanim-potoana tena tranainy talohan’ny nahaterahan’ny kintana taranaka voalohany.

Rehefa mampiasa ny teny hoe “Voie de Milky” isika, dia ny tarika misy hazavana mamiratra izay hitantsika mivelatra manomboka amin’ny faravodilanitra mankany amin’ny faravodilanitra eny amin’ny lanitra amin’ny alina. Ny faritra maizina ao anatin’ity tarika manjavozavo sy malefaka ity, toy ny Great Rift ary ny Kitapo arintany, dia faritra misy vovoka eny amin’ny kintana manakana ny hazavana avy amin’ny kintana lavitra. Ny ampahany amin’ny lanitra amin’ny alina izay afenin’ny Galaxy antsika dia antsoina hoe ny Faritra ialavirana.

Iva ny famirapiratan’ny Milky Way eto amintsika, ary mety hihena be ny fahitana azy amin’ny alàlan’ny hazavana avy any ivelany mivoaka avy amin’ny loto na ny hazavan’ny volana. Sarotra tazana avy amin’ny tanàn-dehibe mamirapiratra ny Galaxy misy antsika, saingy tena mibaribary tsara izy io rehefa jerena avy any ambanivohitra rehefa eo ambanin’ny faravodilanitra ny Volan’ny Tany. Eny tokoa, ny ampahatelon’ny mponina dia tsy afaka mahita ny Voie lactée avy ao an-tranony noho io hazavana io.

Ny Galaxy no vahindanitra faharoa lehibe indrindra monina ao Vondrona eo an-toerana. Ilay vahindanitra miolakolaka somary lehibe kokoa, nomena anarana Andromeda, no lehibe indrindra. Voahodidin’ny vahindanitra zanabolana kely maromaro, toy ny amorphous, ny Voie lactée ankamaroan’ireo SY Rahona Magellanic kely. Amin’ny maha-mpikambana ao amin’ny Vondrona eo an-toeranany Galaxy sy ny zanabolana ao aminy dia ampahany amin’ny Virgo Superclusterizay singa iray amin’ny Laniakea Sypercluster.

Fipoahana roa mamirapiratra amin’ny fahaterahan’ny kintana zazakely

Heverina ho iray amin’ireo hetsika mahery vaika indrindra teo amin’ny tantaran’ny Galaxy ny fizaran-taona mahery vaika, saingy naharitra ela, tamin’ny fahaterahan’ny kintana zazakely iray miliara taona lasa izay. An’hetsiny ireo kintana goavam-be vao niforona angamba no nipoaka toy ny supernova tao anatin’ny iray tapitrisa taona monja.

Noho ireo fandinihana vaovao ireo, ny astronoma dia hanohy handalina ny lafiny iray manan-danja amin’ny Milky Way. Ny Galaxy dia a spiral voasakana. Midika izany fa misy faritra mivelatra kajikajy ho eo anelanelan’ny 2 000 sy 15 000 taona hazavana ny halavany, izay mampitambatra ny tendrony anatiny amin’ireo sandriny miolikolika lehibe roa. Inoana fa tena mahomby ireo rafitra bar galactic ireo rehefa mampitsoka entona any amin’ny faritra afovoan’ny vahindanitra. Hiteraka kintana vaovao mirehitra afo izany.

Ny astronoma dia azo inoana fa hamorona toe-javatra vaovao hanazavana ny an’arivony tapitrisa taona izay tsy nisy zaza teraka tao amin’ny kapila Galactic nokleary. Nandritra ireo taona maro nilamina ireo, dia niharihary fa tsy natsofoka tao amin’ny foibe Galactic be dia be ny entona mba hamoronana kintana vaovao. Dr. Francisco Nogueras Lara, mpitarika ny mpanoratra ny lahatsoratra mamaritra ity fikarohana ity, dia nanamarika tamin’ny 16 Desambra 2019. Max Planck (MPIA) Fanambarana an-gazety fa “Na vao tsy ela akory izay no nipoitra ny bar Galactic, na tsy mahomby amin’ny fampidinana entona toy ny mahazatra ny barazy toy izany. Amin’ity tranga farany ity, ny tranga sasany – toy ny fihaonana akaiky amin’ny vahindanitra dwarf – dia tsy maintsy niteraka. ny entona mikoriana mankany amin’ny foibe Galactic tokony ho iray miliara taona lasa izay.” Dr. Lara dia tao amin’ny Astrofisica de Andalusiaary mpikaroka postdoctoral amin’izao fotoana izao ao amin’ny MPIA.

Ity tolo-kevitra fanarenana ny tantaran’ny kapila Galactic nokleary ity dia mifototra amin’ny toetra sasany fantatra amin’ny fiforonan’ny kintana. Ny kintana dia tsy afaka “miaina” afa-tsy amin’ny fandoroana hidrôzenina filaharana fototra mandritra ny fe-potoana voafaritra. Ohatra, ny Masoandrontsika efa ho 5 lavitrisa taona dia manana “fiainana” 10 lavitrisa taona, ary mbola eo antenatenan’ny fiainana izy io. Ny androm-piainan’ny kintana iray manokana dia mifototra amin’ny faobeny sy ny zavatra simika misy azy.

Isaky ny teraka miaraka amin’ny fotoana mitovy ny kintana maro be – izay mahazatra ao amin’ny Cosmos – dia afaka mandinika ny tarika ny astronoma, mamolavola ny famirapiratan’ny kintana manohitra ny loko mena, ary manohy ny famaritana hoe hafiriana no nisy ireo mpiray tampo amin’ny kintana. teraka. Ny famantarana iray amin’ny vanim-potoanan’ny kintana dia antsoina hoe ny clump mena. ny clump mena Ny kintana dia nanomboka nampifangaro heliôma ao amin’ny atiny–izay midika fa efa nampitambatra ny famatsiana hidrôzenina ilaina amin’ny hélium izy ireo. Amin’ny famaritana ny salan’isan’ny famirapiratan’ny kintana amin’izany clumpazon’ny astronoma atao ny manatsoaka hevitra ny taonan’io antokon-kintana io.

Na izany aza, misy ny “misambotra”. Ireo teknika rehetra ireo dia mitaky ny handinihan’ny mpanandro ny kintana samihafa. Ho an’ny faritra afovoan’i Galaxy misy antsika dia tena sarotra izany. Izany dia satria, rehefa jerena avy any an-tany, ny foibe Galactic dia miafina ao ambadiky ny rahona goavam-be misy vovoka manalokaloka, ka mila fandinihana infrarouge mba hijerena ireo rahona vovoka manarona ireo.

Ankoatra izany, ny fianarana toy izany dia tsy maintsy mahita kintana be loatra ao amin’ny foiben’ny Voie lactée. Ny kapila Galactic dia tena matevina, feno kintana eo anelanelan’ny arivo sy iray hetsy ao anaty goba miaraka amin’ny halavan’ny lafiny iray amin’ny taona mazava. Rehefa hitan’ny astronoma ireo sahan’ny kintana matevina be toy izany, dia hifanindry eo amin’ny sarin’ny teleskaopy ireo kapila kintana ireo. Sarotra tokoa ny manasaraka ireo sehatra ireo ho kintana tsirairay – fa ilaina kosa raha te-hanarina ny tantaran’ny fananganana ny foibe Galactic ny mpandinika iray.

Raha raisina ireo fanamby rehetra ireo, Dr. Rainer Schodel (Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, PI ny Galactic Nucleus Survey), Vidin’ny MPIA Dr. Nadine Neumayer, sy ny mpiara-miasa aminy dia nanomboka nanomana ny fomba hamahana ilay olana. Takatr’ireo astronoma fa tsy maintsy mitady fitaovana mety amin’io asa sarotra io izy ireo. Araka ny fanazavan’ny Dr. Neumayer tamin’ny 16 Desambra 2019 MPIA Press Release “Nila fitaovana akaiky infrarouge izahay miaraka amin’ny sehatra malalaka, afaka mijery ny faritra afovoan’ny Milky Way izay any amin’ny lanitra atsimo.” Ny HAWK an’ny European Southern Observatory (ESO’s) dia hita fa fitaovana mety tsara hampiasain’izy ireo amin’ny fanadihadiana. HAWK dia fakan-tsary infrarouge ao amin’ny Very Large Telescope (VLT) ao amin’ny Paranal Observatory ny ESO any Chile.

Ho azy ireo Galactic Nucleus Survey, Ny astronoma dia nandinika ny faritra afovoan’i Milky Way eto amintsika HAWK-1 mandritra ny 16 alina. Tamin’ny fanaovana izany, dia nahavita nahazo photometry marina misy kintana telo tapitrisa mahery izy ireo. Mampiasa teknika manokana antsoina hoe sary holographic, Nahay nanavaka ny kintana 0,2 segondra monja ny astronoma. Miaraka amin’io mari-pahaizana ambony io, dia azo atao ny manavaka pennies roa misaraka rehefa jerena amin’ny halavirana mihoatra ny 8 kilometatra. Duo hita mazava tsara clumps mena tao amin’ny kisarisary loko-magnitudo vokatr’izany dia nahafahan’ny astronoma namerina ny tantaran’ny fiforonan’ny kapila nokleary Galactic.

Mandalina ny fiantraikan’ny vovoka amin’ny fandinihany ny astronoma amin’izao fotoana izao (fanjavonana sy mena). Ny fiheverana ny vokatry ny vovoka dia hanampy azy ireo hanao fanamboarana mazava kokoa ny tantaran’ny faritra afovoan’i Milky Way amin’ny hoavy.

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