What Is A Average Weight For A 14 Year Old How A Passing Star Lit Up The Ancient Sky

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How A Passing Star Lit Up The Ancient Sky

Nandritra ny an-tapitrisany taona, ny olombelona rehetra, na tany am-boalohany na maoderina, dia tsy maintsy nitady ny sakafony manokana, ary voatery nandany ny ankamaroan’ny andro nanangona zavamaniry sy nihaza biby mba ho velona. Avy eo, tao anatin’ny 12.000 taona lasa izay, ny karazana misy antsika dia nanao ny fiovana revolisionera avy amin’ny maha-mpihaza sy mpanangom-bokatra, ho amin’ny fahafahana mamokatra ny sakafontsika manokana. Na izany aza, tokony ho 74 000 taona lasa izay, dia saika lany tamingana ny olombelona ankehitriny noho ny fiovaovan’ny toetr’andro, ary mety ho 10 000 eo ho eo monja ny isan’ny olon-dehibe ao anatin’ny taom-pananahana. Teo amin’io fotoana io, tokony ho 70.000 taona lasa izay, no nisy kintana mena mena iray nitsinkafona teo akaikin’ny rafi-masoandro misy antsika ary nanozongozona ny kometa sy ny asterôida, izay nandefa azy ireo nikiakiaka nankeo amin’ny Masoandro tanora. Tamin’ny martsa 2018, ekipa astronoma avy amin’ny Complutense University of Madrid tany Espaina sy ny Oniversiten’i Cambridge any Angletera, dia nanambara izy ireo fa nohamarinin’izy ireo fa ny fihetsehan’ny sasany amin’ireo kintana sy asterôida ireo dia vokatry ny fihaonan’ny kintana akaiky.

Tamin’ny fotoana nanombohan’ny olombelona maoderina nifindra monina voalohany avy any Afrika, ary niara-nipetraka tamin’izy ireo teto an-tany ny Neanderthal, S.kintan’i cholz–nantsoina avy amin’ny astronoma alemà izay nahita azy io – dia nitsinkafona latsaky ny iray taona hazavana avy amin’ny Masoandrontsika. Amin’izao fotoana izao, ity kintana mena kely ity dia efa ho 20 taona ny halavirana, saingy 70.000 taona lasa izay dia niteraka loza izy rehefa nirenireny tao amin’ny rafi-masoandrontsika. Oort Cloudfitahirizana lavitra an’ny Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) hita any amin’ny faritra ivelan’ny rafi-masoandro misy antsika. TNOs dia nokleary kometa feno ranomandry sy vovoka izay monina ao amin’ny faritra maizina amin’ny faritry ny herin’ny sinton’ny masoandro.

Tamin’ny taona 2015 no nahafantarana voalohany an’io fahitana io ny ekipa astronoma notarihin’i Dr. Eric Mamajek ao amin’ny Oniversiten’i Rochester any New York (Etazonia). Navoaka tao amin’ny laharana faha-10 Febroary 2015 ny antsipirihan’io fiaramanidina kintana mahatsiravina io, izay voarakitra akaiky indrindra hatreto. The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Sambo Kintana izay nandalo tamin’ny alina

Kintana irery ny Masoandrontsika, saingy na dia mipetraka irery aza izy, dia misy mpitsidika indraindray. Ny mpitsidika toy izany dia ny manjavozavo sy ny vahiny Ny kintan’i Scholz rehefa nitsidika ny rafi-masoandrontsika. Ity mpanafika kintana kely manjavozavo ity dia heverina fa namakivaky ny Oort Cloud–ilay akoran’ny nokleary comet izay manodidina ny rafi-masoandrontsika manontolo.

Ny kintan’i Scholz dia faobe ambany dwarf mena kintana izay mpikambana ao amin’ny rafitra mimari-droa, ary manao fanatanjahan-tena kely ny 8% an’ny Masoandrontsika. Ny mpikambana hafa ao amin’ny duo dia a dwarf volontanykintana tsy nahomby, izay kely kokoa noho ny Ny kintan’i Scholz miaraka amin’ny lanjan’ny masoandro 6% monja. Dwarf mena kintana no tena kintana kely indrindra ao amin’ny Cosmos, ary koa ny maro be sy ela velona indrindra. Mifanohitra amin’izany, kely kely dwarfs volontany dia tsy fahombiazana kintana kely mahavariana. Izany dia satria, na dia izany aza dwarf volontanyAzo inoana fa teraka mitovy amin’ny kintana marina izy ireo–avy amin’ny firodanan’ny vongan-javatra matevina indrindra tafiditra ao anatin’ny iray amin’ireo goavam-be, maizina ary mangatsiaka. rahona molekiola izay manenjika ny Galaxy Milky Way antsika – tsy mahavita mahazo lanja ampy mihitsy izy ireo mba handrehitra ny afo kintana nokleary. Na dia kely aza dwarfs volontany tsy mahazo faobe ampy hanombohana ny dingan’ny fusion noklearymbola goavana kokoa noho izy ireo gasy goavambe planeta, toa an’i Jupiter, ilay behemoth mitsipitsipika sy mifatotra ao amin’ny rafi-masoandro misy antsika. Dwarf mena kintana, mifanohitra amin’izany, dia nahavita nahazo faobe ampy hanombohana ny dingan’ny fusion nokleary–izay miteraka fanerena ampy hiadiana amin’ny herin’ny hery misintonanoho izany dia mitazona ny kintana hanohitra ny fianjerany mahafaty. Fanerena taratra manosika ny fitaovana kintana avy SY lasa avy amin’ny kintana, raha miezaka ny misintona famihinana ny zava-drehetra in. Ireo hery roa miady dia manampy kintana iray hihazona ny fitovian’ny kintana – fa tsy maintsy ho tonga ny farany, na ho ela na ho haingana. Raha vantany vao vita ny fandoroana ny famatsiana ilaina ny kintana nokleary-fusing solika–izay mampitambatra singa atomika mavesatra kokoa amin’ireo maivana kokoa–hery misintona mandresy amin’ny ady amin’ny mpifaninana aminy, ary mirodana ny kintana. Na izany aza, azo inoana fa tsy misy maty dwarf mena kintana ao amin’ny Cosmos–mbola. Ny kintana kely dia manamora ny “fiainany” kintana ary mandoro ny solikany–tena, tena miadana. Tena ilaina tokoa izany tapitrisa tapitrisany taona ho an’ny a dwarf mena ho faty, ary mbola tsy 14 miliara taona akory izao tontolo izao. Mifanohitra amin’izany kosa, ny kintana goavam-be dia velona haingana ary maty tanora, ary ny sasany dia mety ho “velona” ho an’ny olona an-tapitrisany, fa mifanohitra amin’ny an’arivony tapitrisa – mainka fa an’arivony tapitrisa – taona. Kintana kely ny Masoandrontsika, saingy lehibe lavitra noho ny a dwarf mena. Manodidina ny 4,56 lavitrisa taona eo ho eo ny kintanantsika, ary manana 5 lavitrisa taona eo ho eo izy vao mitsoka ny sosona entona ivelany ao aminy, ka mamela ny atiny vakoka ho lasa zavatra bitika mikitroka antsoina hoe a dwarf fotsy.

Ny kintan’i Scholz dia mponin’ny antokon-kintana Monoceros, izay eo amin’ny 20 taona eo ho eo amin’ny Tany no misy azy. Na izany aza, rehefa torana kely dwarf mena nanara-maso akaiky ny rafi-masoandro tanorantsika tamin’ny vanim-potoanan’ny tany talohan’ny tantara an’arivony taona lasa izay, mety ho toy ny kintana manana maridrefy faha-20 izy io. Izany dia avo 50 heny noho ny fahita matetika amin’ny maso mitanjaka amin’ny alina. Na izany aza, Ny kintan’i Scholz dia tena mavitrika amin’ny magnetika, ary izany dia mety hahatonga azy ho “mirehitra”. Ho an’ny fotoana mamiratra fohy amin’ny ambaratongan’ny cosmological, Ny kintan’i Scholz mety ho lasa in’arivony heny kokoa. Midika izany fa azo atao tanteraka izany Ny kintan’i Scholz Hitan’ny razambentsika teo aloha 70.000 taona lasa izay – nandritra ny minitra na ora nandritra ny fotoana tsy fahita firy tamin’ny fipoahana.

Ny kintan’i Scholz dia voatondro amin’ny fomba ofisialy kokoa WISE J072003.20-084651.2. Nahazo ny anaram-bositra tsy dia ara-teknika ho fanomezam-boninahitra ny astronoma Dr. Ralf-Dieter Scholz avy amin’ny Leibniz-Institut fur Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP) any Alemaina. Dr. Scholz no voalohany nanambara ny fahitana ilay kely manjavozavo dwarf mena kintana tamin’ny faramparan’ny taona 2013. Ny HENDRY singa ny Ny kintan’i Scholz Ny anarana ofisialy dia manondro ny NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) iraka, tompon’andraikitra amin’ny fanaovana sarintany ny lanitra manontolo amin’ny hazavana infrarouge tamin’ny 2010 sy 2011. J Ny ampahany amin’ny anarana ofisialy dia manondro ny dwarf mena mandrindra.

Ny dian’ilay kintana kely dia milaza fa 70 000 taona lasa izay dia nitsinkafona 52 000 teo ho eo izy io. unit astronomika (AU) avy amin’ny Tany (0,8 taona-hazavàna)–izay mitovy amin’ny 5 trillion kilaometatra. Iray le dia mitovy amin’ny halavirana salan’isa eo amin’ny Masoandro sy ny Tany, izany hoe 93.000.000 kilaometatra eo ho eo. Ny mpanoratra ny taratasy 2015 dia nanamarika fa 98% azo antoka izany Ny kintan’i Scholz nitsambikina ny Oort Cloud. ny Oort Cloud dia heverina ho fonenan’ny nokleary kometa mivaingana sy manjelanjelatra an’arivo tapitrisany izay mirefy iray kilaometatra eo ho eo – na mihoatra. Io rahona lavitra io ihany koa no heverina fa niavian’ny kometa elaela izay mihodikodina manodidin’ny Masoandrontsika rehefa avy nikorontana tamin’ny herin’ny sinton’ny ny fihodinan’izy ireo.

ny Oort Cloud dia nomena anarana ho an’ireo nahita azy roa, ilay astronoma holandey Jan Oort (1900-1992) sy ilay astronoma estonianina Ernst Opik (1893-1985). Io akorandriaka boribory io no fonenan’ny ranomandry planetesimal, sisa tavela tamin’ny fiforonan’ny rafi-masoandrontsika 4,5 lavitrisa taona mahery lasa izay. ranomandry planetesimal Izy ireo no singa nanorenana ny ampahatelon’ireo planeta goavam-be monina ao amin’ny rafi-masoandro ivelany – Jupiter, Saturne, Uranus, ary Neptune. Mifanohitra amin’izany, ny asteroids— hita mipetraka ao amin’ny Fehikibo Asteroid Main eo anelanelan’i Mars sy Jupiter – dia ny vakoka misy vatolampy sy metaly planetesimal izay nanorina ny ampahatelon’ny planeta ao anatin’ny rafi-masoandro – Mercury, Venus, Tany ary Mars. Ao amin’ny rafi-masoandro voalohany planetesimal–na ranomandry na vatolampy–nifandona ary nitambatra mba hamorona vatana lehibe kokoa sy lehibe kokoa, ka namorona ny planeta mahazatra ny fianakavian’ny Masoandro. ny Oort Cloud Heverina fa manodidina ny rafi-masoandro misy antsika amin’ny halavirana 100.000 AU, izay mametraka azy eo amin’ny antsasa-dalana mankany amin’ny kintana akaiky indrindra amin’ny Masoandrontsika. Proxima Centauri.

ny Fehikibo Kuiper SY Kapila miparitaka–izay ahitana zavatra mitovy amin’ny kometa mivaingana ihany koa–dia latsaky ny arivo ny halaviran’ny Masoandro raha oharina amin’ny Oort Cloud. Ny sisiny ivelany indrindra amin’ny Oort Cloud manamarika ny sisin-tanin’ny faritra misy antsika Star. Io no sisin-tanin’ny fanjakazakan’ny herin’ny masoandrontsika.

ny Oort Cloud amin’ny ankapobeny dia heverina fa ahitana faritra roa: rahona anaty miendrika kapila antsoina hoe ny Rahona havoanaary ivelany boribory rahona. Ny ankamaroan’ny mponina lavitra sy mangatsiaka ao amin’ny Oort Cloud dia voaforon’ny ranomandry, toy ny ranomandry, ranomandry metana, ary ranomandry amoniaka.

Ny Masoandrontsika dia azo inoana fa teraka ho mpikambana ao amin’ny vondron-kintana mivelatra midadasika misy kintana mpiray tampo an’arivony. Maro ny astronoma no mino fa ny Masoandro vao teraka dia noroahina tamin’ny fomba tsy ara-dalàna avy amin’ny vondron’ny nahaterahany noho ny fikorontanan’ny gravitational nateraky ny kintana hafa. na fa nitsinkafona fotsiny tamin’ny sitrapony manokana tokony ho 4,5 lavitrisa taona lasa izay. Efa ela no nirenireny tany amin’ny faritra lavitra kokoa amin’ny Galaxy Milky Way ireo mpiray tampo amin’ny Star, ary mety ho 3.500 amin’ireo mpifindrafindra monina amin’ny masoandro ireo.

Amin’izao fotoana izao, ny Masoandrontsika dia ao anatin’ny antsasaky ny androm-piainana. Izy io dia a main-sequence (mirehitra hydrogène) kintana eo amin’ny Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram of Stellar Evolution. Rehefa mandeha ny kintana dia tsy dia miavaka loatra ny Masoandrontsika. Ny rafi-masoandrontsika dia hita any amin’ny faritra ambanivohitra lavitra amin’ny majestic misy antsika – na dia mahazatra aza – ny galaxy miolikolika voasakana, ny Milky Way.

Mamirapiratra ao amin’ny lanitra prehistoric

astronoma roa avy amin’ny Complutense University of Madrid (Espaina), ireo rahalahy Dr. Carlos sy Dr. Raul de la Fuente Marcos, miaraka amin’ny Dr. Sverre J. Aarseth mpiara-miasa aminy ao amin’ny Oniversiten’i Cambridge (UK), dia izao no namakafaka voalohany ireo zavatra efa ho 340. zavatra monina ao amin’ny rafi-masoandro misy antsika miaraka amin’ny orbite hyperbolic (miendrika V tena misokatra, mifanohitra amin’ny elliptika mahazatra). Tao anatin’izany dingana izany, ireo astronoma telo dia nahita fa ny lalan’ny sasany amin’ireo zavatra ireo dia misy fiantraikany amin’ny fandalovan’ny Ny kintan’i Scholz.

“Ny fampiasana simulation numeric dia nanao kajy ny taratra na toerana eny amin’ny lanitra izay toa niavian’ireo zavatra hyperbolic rehetra ireo”, hoy ny fanazavan’ny Dr. Carlos de la Fuente Marcos tamin’ny 10 martsa 2018. La Ciencia es Noticia (SiNC) Press Release.

“Raha ny tokony ho izy, ny olona iray dia manantena fa ireo toerana ireo dia mizara mitovy eny amin’ny lanitra, indrindra raha avy amin’ny Oort Cloud. Na izany aza, ny zavatra hitantsika dia tena hafa, fanangonan-tsonia manan-danja ara-statistika ny taratra. Ny hamafin’ny voalaza etsy ambony dia miseho amin’ny lalana mankany amin’ny antokon-kintana Geminiizay mifanentana amin’ny fihaonana akaiky Ny kintan’i Scholz,” hoy hatrany izy nanamarika.

Ny ora marina izay Ny kintan’i Scholz nandalo teo akaikin’ny Tany, ary koa ny toerana nisy azy nandritra ny vanim-potoana talohan’ny tantara, nifanojo tamin’ny daty voafaritra tamin’ny fanadihadiana vaovao–ary koa amin’ireo kajy nataon’i Dr. Mamajek sy ny ekipany. “Mety ho fifanandrifian-javatra izany, saingy tsy azo inoana fa mifanaraka ny toerana sy ny fotoana”, hoy hatrany ny fanazavan’ny Dr. De la Fuente Marcos tamin’ny 10 martsa 2018. SiNC Press Release. Nasongadiny koa fa ny simulation ataon’izy ireo dia manondro izany Ny kintan’i Scholz dia nanatona akaiky kokoa noho ny 0.6 light-years natolotra tamin’ny fandalinana 2015 teo aloha ho fetra ambany kokoa.

Io borosy akaiky misy kintana mena kely io 70.000 taona lasa izay dia tsy nanelingelina ireo zavatra hyperbolique rehetra tao amin’ny rafi-masoandro misy antsika, fa ireo akaiky indrindra tamin’izany fotoana izany ihany. “Ohatra, ny famirapiratan’ny asteroid interstellar malaza Oumuamua dia ao amin’ny antokon-kintana ny Lyra (ny harpa), tena lavitra Gemini. Noho izany, tsy tafiditra ao anatin’ny hamafin’ny tsikaritra izany, “hoy ny Dr. De la Fuente Marcos nanampy. Nilaza koa izy fa matoky izy fa ny fanadihadiana sy ny fandinihana vaovao dia hanamafy ny hevitra hoe Ny kintan’i Scholz nandalo teo akaikinay tato ho ato. Eny tokoa, azo inoana fa ny razana, nibanjina ny lanitra, dia nahita ny hazavana mena manjavozavo tamin’ny alina maizina tamin’ny andro taloha.

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